38 Overview of BGIF Projects

From Blue Gold Program Wiki

The 42 Blue Gold Innovation Fund (BGIF) projects[1] are categorised in the summary table 38.1 and are then further analysed in this chapter.

Briefing Materials
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The following materials illustrate concepts, interventions, outcomes and lessons learnt, including through stories from community members.
Thematic brochures
Case studies
Table 38.1 BGIF project size per type
number of BGIF projects Total expenditure (Euro) Average value (Euro) %age BGIF fund allocation
Feasibility Study 20 395,774 19,789 20%
Pilot 11 529,631 48,148 26%
Scaled-up 2 83,787 41,893 4%
Integrated project 6 541,317 90,219 27%
Solicited 3 464,770 154,923 23%
TOTAL 42 2,015,279 47,983 100%

Project types and the innovation funnel[edit | edit source]

At the outset, it was intended that projects would pass through feasibility, pilot and scaling-up stages. However, for a variety of reasons, a relatively small number of the 42 projects (only 6) followed this path.

The Innovation Funnel (in Figure 38.1) provides applicants with a view of the structured approach to selection used by Blue Gold evaluators, and how a proposal for a specific stage fits into an overall process. The 'converging funnel' approach starts from a wide-ranging set of proposals covering very different subject matter. This group of proposals are then compared against criteria given in the initial invitation with the aim of selecting innovative development projects each of which has a strong potential for scaling-up and commercialisation.

Figure 38.1 Blue Gold Innovation Funnel

While a few did indeed follow the full trajectory, most started at the feasibility stage but did not progress further. Others started at pilot phase (the concept having already been demonstrated elsewhere).

A further category, termed as 'solicited projects', resulted from two separate formal requests for proposals in the agriculture and ICT sectors, each with a budget ceiling up to €133,000 (refer to Chapter 37 'Solicited Proposals').

Most projects were feasibility studies (20 out of 42), only three of which reached pilot stage (Stage 3 Prototype) - and of these three projects, only two reached the final ‘scaled-up’ stage (Stage 4 Commercialization). Two feasibility studies were developed to pilot-scale under the Deltares-managed Water Management Knowledge and Innovation Program (WMKIP): an action research project for pumped drainage in Polder 2, and the use of water apps to enhance operational water management. So, five feasibility studies in total or 25% graduated to pilot phase. Eight pilot projects did not have a FS predecessor. The final report for three feasibility studies was not accepted because the relevance to Blue Gold was not well-established. The six 'integrated projects' were considered to be a merger of pilot and scaled-up stages which omitted the feasibility study stage - and had shown their feasibility, for instance by demonstrating that the concept had been proven elsewhere.

In the rest of this report, the category ‘Other’ is not analysed as the results are not fully related to innovation outcomes.[Notes 1]

Figure 38.2 Number of BGIF projects

Although there are more FS projects funded then pilot or solicited projects, total funds towards these last two types of projects is far more. This is important since the Innovation Fund ultimately aims at implementing innovations on the ground and not only studying the feasibility potential ideas.

Figure 38.3 Expenditure on BGIF projects (EURO)

Given that there were relatively more feasibility studies, the allocation per type of project shows that relatively speaking, integrated projects are the largest, followed by pilot and scale projects. FS size in EUR is about half of pilot and scale projects. Integrated projects are roughly 4 times the size of FS types, on average.

Figure 38.4 Average value of BGIF projects (EURO)

Now we take a chronological perspective, where, looking at the contract signing date, we can deduce a trend where at first mostly FS and pilot projects were contracted in 2013-2017. In 2018, larger and integrated projects were mostly signed. This makes sense, since Innovation Fund moved from funding feasibility studies into funding the implementation of pilot, scale and integrated projects.

Figure 38.5 BGIF contracts per year (2013-2019)

The graph below depicts the same contracts but now breaks it down into months of each year and the cumulative amounts of signed contract amounts in EUR per month in the 2013-2019 period.

Figure 38.6 BGIF contract amounts per month & year (2013-2019)

Chapter 37 reflects on how the fund re-oriented its focus towards demand led initiatives and involved Blue Gold’s field-based technical experts in the appraisal of BGIF project proposals and subsequent implementation from 2017.

In terms of length of implementation[Notes 2], feasibility studies have taken just under six months on average, while pilot and solicited projects take between 1 year and 18 months (based on projects completed as of October 2019).

Table 38.2: Average duration of BGIF projects (as of October 2019)
Type No. Length of implementation


FS[Notes 3] 16 5.6
Pilot (completed) 11 14.5
Solicited projects (completed) 1 12.7

In some cases, total project duration exceeded their original allocated schedules - a contributor cause of which was the time taken to achieve an acceptable standard of final reporting.

Figure 38.7 Completed BGIF project duration by contract codes in months

Projects in the Water Innovation Fund and Productive Sector Fund[edit | edit source]

The BGIF features two funding windows: for water innovation and the productive sector.

The water innovation fund was meant to be closely connected with water management activities in the Blue Gold Program. It aimed to involve representatives of all community stakeholders (eg farmers, fishermen, landowners, landless, etc.) working through water management organisations (WMOs) in partnership with government, NGOs and the private sector to manage water to meet agricultural requirements. Interventions included the rehabilitation of flood embankments, plus associated structures such as sluices to convey water across the embankment, to reduce the risk of loss of lives and crops; maintenance of main khals to remove water from the fields, or to store water for supplementary irrigation; operation of sluices to drain excess water or to introduce fresh water in times of shortage. In-polder water management demonstration schemes were set up to enable collective action to ensure timely drainage, synchronisation of cropping patterns and improved agricultural production strategies. In-polder water management was included as it helps to establish resilient, productive and diverse cropping systems; and the capacity to manage that into the future.

The productive sector fund aimed to enable the farm households to enhance their productivity, be it for home consumption or sales; to make use of additional availability of land and opportunities for different cropping systems; and to pursue better services from government and private agencies; and better deals from input suppliers and bulk buyers. Market system development was aimed for through Farmer Field Schools (FFS), which introduced concepts as farming as a business and market orientation, but also development activities which strengthened the capacity of and linkages with other actors such as input suppliers.

All BGIF projects were funded by either of these two windows, depending on whether the project outcomes were aligned with the goals of the water management fund or the productive sector fund.

In this sub-section we look at which projects were funded by these two funding windows and what outcomes these projects achieved, and what lessons were learned from a fund management perspective.

First, we look at the total number of projects funded by the two windows, see Figure 38.8 below. Both the Water and Productive fund have funded many feasibility studies (10 and 9, respectively), but the Water Fund has far fewer pilot projects (2 versus 9), scale (1 versus 1) and solicited projects (2 versus 4).

Figure 38.8 Completed BGIF project duration by contract codes in months

Size wise, the Water Fund has about half of its funds allocated to FS, Pilot, Scale and Integrated projects compared to the Productive Fund.[Notes 4]

Figure 38.9 Aggregate values (in Euro) of Water and Productive funds

Water Innovation Fund projects[edit | edit source]

This section reviews a number of specific projects (excluding feasibility studies), their main outcomes and lessons learnt.

Community Based Integrated Water Management, FHRC [BGIF 14][edit | edit source]

The project served to test whether an alternative community based integrated approach to water, land and natural resources management could help communities address their priorities and improve returns under BGP. Some outputs:

  • Training main local stakeholders (WMG members)
  • Exchange visits (WMG in Polder 43/1E to and from WMG in P.29)
  • Enabling minor tertiary works to improve water storage/supply and drainage
  • Promoting low water demand dry season crops so that water is used more efficiently (assistance with seeds, advice on crops)
  • Vegetable cultivation in polybags was tested by 44 households and then spread. Brinjal, tomatoes and chillies were successfully grown for home consumption, enhancing nutrition
  • Rice variety BRRI Dhan 67 was demonstrated and gave yields 1.5 times that of usual varieties and was free from rust disease which was widespread in this dry season.

Lessons learned: Starting with Participatory Action Plan Development and helping WMGs implement their plans builds trust and capacity but depends on a flexible response to WMG demands. It takes time to build trust and obtain government support, so a phased approach is needed. Forums of adjacent WMGs (cluster approach) bridged gaps between WMGs and enabled learning between pilot and other WMGs. Knowledge sharing encourages improved performance and healthy competition among WMGs.

SWIFT, United Purpose (& SMKK) [BGIF 26][edit | edit source]

The Sustainable Water Management through Indigenous Finance and Technology Research (SWIFT) project helped farmers to decide their priorities for small scale water infrastructure work, gather (in-kind) contributions from Union parishad and the farmers themselves and finally obtain funds from government to implement these small works themselves. The project has comprised a Feasibility Study, a Phase II pilot and a Phase III scaling up. Highlights from the project include:

  • WMGs are taking leadership in resource mobilization, made a start with breaking the cycle of aid dependency from external donors which will positively support them to ensure sustainability of their activities.
  • WMGs came forward to take the lead on flood control and drainage infrastructure (FCDI) works to be implemented through mobilising resources from different sources by their own initiatives.
  • WMG members improved ownership for initiating FCDI works.
  • In the pilot phase, mobilised resources value in BDT 6,56,864 against BDT 5,94,948 for 26 FCDI schemes.
  • Enhanced networking and linkages of skills between WMGs and Union Parishad Authorities, DAE and BWDB representatives.

Lessons learned: The project showed that the mobilization of support for constructing small structures is possible if the participants are convinced of the benefit of such investment. Participants are ready to contribute in different ways, if they cannot afford financial contribution, they are ready to contribute by physical labour or kind.

Accelerating Horizontal Learning in Blue Gold polders: ICT as force multiplier, MetaMeta (& JJS and Access Agriculture) [BGIF 30][edit | edit source]

The horizonal learning project trained farmers to make videos and helped them capture their best-practise examples, which were subsequently shown to other farmers groups in the project area.


  • Trained 27 UDC Members in video making & sharing
  • Trained 250 WMG Members in video making & sharing
  • Improved self confidence on some of the video-makers and view of improved personal development.

Lessons learnt: Behavioural change takes time, thus longer training with supportive funding helped to achieve the objectives. Good practices needs to be identified for such visual dissemination. Moreover, mentoring during shooting and follow-up with the audience enhances the impact.

Water Hyacinth, Khulna University (&WUR and BEDS) [BGIF 32][edit | edit source]

‘Development of value-added products from water hyacinth to support alternative livelihoods and ecological resilience’ is implemented in Polder 25 (WMG at Thukra Bazar, Dumuria, Khulna) to address water hyacinth infestation problem in southwest coastal polders.


  • A pilot manufacturing plant for producing water hyacinth paper was set up at polder 25 with Thukra WMG. Necessary manpower were trained
  • Compost preparation process was transferred
  • An art competition was arranged to promote WH craft paper among users
  • Steps were taken to link producer with buyers.

Lessons learnt: Craft paper and compost have niche markets. But there are strong suppliers as well. KU project implementation team has shown sincere efforts in transferring WH craft preparation technology and marketing of product. The important lesson is, water hyacinth, a seemingly harmful weed can be transformed into an asset. This simple pilot has engaged many beneficiaries and created opportunities for additional income.

Productive Sector Fund projects[edit | edit source]

Eco Pond, World Fish [BGIF 7 and BGIF 20][edit | edit source]

In the Ecopond approach small homestead ponds are used to create shade and shelter for fishes with simple materials which can be easily collected and maintained by women. The Ecopond project has shown that the participatory methods and tools used were effective to engage women actively in the program even with small numbers of staff. It has demonstrated that development of community groups, setting up of the Learning Centres, involvement of women leaders and linkages with the WMGs and other stakeholders along with training were useful. A total of 3,377 women owning around 4,500 small ponds were involved and more than 80% were successful in generating income and receiving better nutrition from the small ponds. The Ecopond approach has been undertaken by other institutions too such as the CREL project of Winrock International who scaled-out the approach by working directly with more than 500 households near the Sundarbans. During the project, WordFish has developed a training manual, a video, a database and other articles and papers to promote upscaling. It has also acquired additional funds to keep on monitoring the Ecopond project in the BGP area up to June 2018 and upscale the project further in the coastal belt.

Lessons learnt:

  • The Ecopond project approach works, i.e. developing women local service provider (LSP) and Lead Farmers worked for scaling the ecopond production system through effective engagement of women.
  • Engagement of women in small-scale aquaculture can increase women empowerment and household nutrition by increased consumption of small fishes at the household.
  • Families consumed almost all the fishes (93%) produced in the ecopond, ameliorating their daily nutrition.
  • To ensure quality breed or fingerlings of small native species in the time of stocking in the ecopond, as many of the small ponds dry up during dry season.

Pig rearing pilot, Nice Foundation [BGIF 10][edit | edit source]

To improve the economic and social status of the pig-rearing community by investigating particular aspects of hygienic pig management and rearing: pigs' reproductive performance, their mortality rates, diseases and treatment, feeding practice, and marketing. The project trained 200 pig farmers (90% women) on hygienic practices in pig husbandry using the Farmer Field School (FFS) approach. Market linkages were established between service providers, farmers and traders. A pig demonstration farm was established as a learning model for pig farmers.

Some lessons learnt:

  • Pig manure can be used for bio-gas and organic fertilizer in agricultural field.
  • Pig farming can be accepted by local population, if they are hygienically and sensitively managed.
  • Scaling-up is difficult because of small community involved and remote markets.

Increasing mungbean production of small farmers, JUST Farming [BGIF 15][edit | edit source]

The project intended to address two major challenges in the mungbean value chain:

The project intended to address two major challenges in the mungbean value chain: 1) quality of produced mungbean is low and 2) volumes of farmers are not high enough to allow efficient marketing. A Production Hub (with an IT-system to support production management and quality control) was the solution that the project sought to implement.

Two hundred small-scale mungbean producers signed contract agreements with Just Farming. 100 farmers harvested on average 218 kg, which was sold to JF on average at BDT 76 p/kg (improvement compared to previous year sale price of BDT 62 p/kg). The other 100 farmers lost their crop due to unfavourable weather conditions.

Lesson learnt:

  • Just Farming pilot had some extension success but ultimately failed in securing their own forward linkage, i.e. contracting with a mung processor prepared to pay a premium for mung cultivated along particular requirements of size (variety), cultivation practice (pest management), harvesting etc.  
  • The selected IT-system was a standard package. It proved useful to manage a producer group in a ‘contracting’ situation thereby largely serving the needs of the lead firm. It was insufficiently flexible in its set-up to serve farmer needs though.

Floating Cage Aquaponics, Practical Action [BGIF 19][edit | edit source]

IFCAS (Integrated Floating Cage Aquaponics System) was found as a suitable option for resource poor people in vulnerable areas to get a quick return. 15 farming families of Satkhira District have practiced aqua-geoponics technology in canals and ponds and confirmed that the business case was profitable within two cycles.  Major risks found were 1) presence of crab in the canal which can damage net, 2) water availability and security issues to protect the fish. Three things can be further improved: – 1) diversification of fish and vegetable species 2) rethink cage material and cost, 3) test such cases with access to commercial finance.

Lessons learnt:

  • Pilot achieved breakeven in terms of costs and benefits.
  • Idea is good in waterlogged area, but limited replicability in rest of polder due to easier, and more lucrative options for farmers involved.

Tilapia Feed, WorldFish (& WUR and CGIAR) [BGIF 21][edit | edit source]

The new pond feed formulation resulted in 15% additional fish growth during the piloting phase and created tremendous interest among the tilapia farmers in the working areas. It also increased farming gross margin at high stocking density was nearly double with the new feed. However, due the regulatory restriction according to “Fish feed and Animal feed Act 2010” of the Government of Bangladesh, the commercial feed companies cannot follow the new composition. To address this policy barrier, WorldFish together with several fish feed companies organised a large-scale piloting for evidence together with DoF.

The project successfully demonstrated the benefit of using feed in doubling productivity of fish in the homestead and commercial ponds. This has created increased demand of tilapia feed in the southwest region, which has been reflected by the continued growth of the feed business by the local service providers and net production increase of tilapia from SW Bangladesh in contrast to rest of the country. For the semi-automatic feed millers the project could attract interest of “Single Spark”, a Dutch start-up company working on digital extension of fish and animal feed formulation by developing feed calculator. This company has now included formulation in their apps and is scaling in Bangladesh and Africa. The industrial collaboration with Dutch Feed Company, De Heus, continued to grow in areas of both research and market expansion in Bangladesh.

BG Innovation Challenge, Social Business Youth Alliance (& YY Goshti) [BGIF 23][edit | edit source]

The Blue Gold Innovation Challenge aimed at inspiring innovative business solutions to the various problems faced by the inhabitants of the BGP polder areas so that they can begin to support themselves independently and profitably. The project resulted in seven winning youngsters with innovative ideas and entrepreneurial ambitions. Four youngers started working on a prototype.

Lessons learnt:

  • Quality of submitted proposals to the BGIF were below the acceptable standard. It is perhaps too ambitious to expect that young people without any work or business experience (some still studying) can devote sufficient capacity and time to prepare and implement a project under BGIF on their own.
  • More efforts could have been stimulated from the start to let them form partnerships with well-established organisations and businesses in Bangladesh.

Pen Culture, BSMRAU [BGIF 28][edit | edit source]

The seasonally waterlogged areas could potentially be utilised for adoption of pen fish culture technology. The target fish to culture would preferably be the short-grown species like tilapia. The major carps may also be stocked as secondary fish species.

The main benefit of the project was building awareness and knowledge of WMGs (and the rural communities as well) on productive utilization waterlogged beels for local livelihood improvement through adoption of pen fish culture.

The production cycle in one area could not be completed due to water drainage as a result of re-excavation of a nearby khal under the Blue Gold Program (the success of the Amodkhali excavation, which reduced the waterlogging greatly, but located in the wrong location for this BGIF project). In addition, there intentional damage of nets prior to final harvesting that caused a huge number of fishes to escape.

Lessons learnt:

  • Closer cooperation between water infrastructure team and those involved with BGIF project appraisal and monitoring
  • Implementation team of mostly senior team of professors does not work with very few operational staff for actual implementation on the ground.

Pangas Farming, Innovision [BGIF 27][edit | edit source]

Using improved culture practice, Pangasius aquaculture in homestead ponds of three Upazilas of Patuakhali District resulted in increased fish production. The participating farmers used farm-made feed. The farmers also got a better farm gate price of Pangasius in comparison to capital city market price. Reports are available on the Feasibility Study Phase and on the Implementation Phase.

Lessons learnt:

  • Feed quality, particularly protein content, was a major concern as the feed was produced from unidentified sources. Moreover, farmers' perception in pond management, specifically in feeding practices, resulted poor fish growth in some ponds.
  • Transportation in the local urban markets need strong infrastructure system.
  • The farmers need a strong backup linkage to continued fish or Pangasius farming practices in their ponds.

Women Business Centres, United Purpose [BGIF 22][edit | edit source]

Centres were designed to improve rural women’s access to services, income, and their position in agricultural value chains in rural areas. The Feasibility Stage was  successful, women were trained and selected for the subsequent phase to set up profitable businesses and marketing services not usually available in the local rural setting (like scanning documents, printing pictures, etc) and selling some relevant products for women as well (like sanitary pads). However, the WBC quickly became regular micro retail-stores, selling eggs, cigarettes, some vegetables, etc like any other roadside shop. Reports are available on the Feasibility Study, Phase II Implementation and Phase III Implementation.

Lessons learnt:

  • The local management team should be fully committed to the WBC concept and and be provided with coaching and technical support. Due to high staff turnover of key team members , insufficient guidance was provided to WBCs.
  • Ensure sustainable partnerships among group members.
  • WBCs need coaching in business planning, in particular to assessthe requirements of local customers and to establish linkages with suppliers to cater for the demand, and to create a profit to run the centre and pay the staff .

Climate and market smart mung bean advisory services, CIMMYT [BGIF 33][edit | edit source]

Mung bean is an increasingly popular crop in the central coast of Bangladesh. This twenty-one month project focused on building the resilience of smallholder mung bean farmers in the southern central coast of Bangladesh to heavy rainfall risks. Research activities developed farmer-friendly and demand-driven climate- and market-smart mung bean advisory dissemination systems using ICT tools in the form of interactive voice response and smartphone app systems.

Lesson learnt:

  • Climate and market information services need to be demand-driven, and based on farmer’s preferences in order to be successful.
  • Partnerships are key, CIMMYT established relationship with the Department of Agricultural Extension and BMD for successful implementation.
  • COVID-19 crisis interfered with planned field activities, so that fewer workshops were held.

Breed identification and digital registry of cattle, mPower [BGIF 29][edit | edit source]

Objective: Livestock sector of Bangladesh is characterized by low cattle productivity compared to other countries. Although artificial insemination was introduced many years ago, there is no proper record of improvement in the genetic material of cattle breeds.

Results: The project successfully developed digital cattle breed identification application and implemented in Dumuria of Khulna, Satkhira Sadar and Patuakhali Sadar Upazilas. 6,000 plus livestock farmers received improved livestock services which includes tele-veterinary, breed identification & AI recommendation and SMS based Advisory services with a very high satisfaction. Successfully developed AI Dashboard for DLS and AI service providing companies. 52 community livestock service providers have improved their technical knowledge and competency through digital E-Learning modules and videos.

Lessons learnt:

  • Strong demand has been observed for tele-veterinary and breed identification services among farmers, local service providers as well as the community leaders. These digital services increased confidence and competency of service providers in delivering livestock treatment and advisory services to farmers.
  • Breed Identification service AI technicians find it easy to motivate farmers take right type of semen for their cattle. Farmers developed strong awareness on negative and long-term consequences of wrong type of semen use for AI. However, the recommended type of semen was not always available for the appropriate AI.
  • Although willingness to join Shurokkha tele-veterinary service among community service providers is quite strong, soliciting service with payment is limited to only complicated cases.

Sack Farming, Practical Action [BGIF 31][edit | edit source]

Waterlogging, flood, salinity and erratic weather shocks are common challenges for farmers in south-west Bangladesh. Gardening in sacks is such a technique, which can be applied to improve food security, nutrition and household income of the poor people. Sack gardens, also known as ‘bag gardens’ or ‘vertical gardens’, are tall sacks filled with soil from which plant life grows. Practical Action implemented this project aimed at increasing the coping mechanism with climate resilient agriculture technologies for the most vulnerable communities in the coastal polder areas.

Lesson Learnt:

  • Accessing soil and seeds is difficult in areas subject to frequent flooding. Sack gardeners need to ensure collecting enough soil before the rainy season.
  • The average life-span of a sack is around 12 months. Sufficient water is required during the dry season to prevent crops from wilting.
  • Farmers adopt technology easily that they find easy to copy and beneficial.

Fairs by GoB departments[edit | edit source]

In order to showcase successful innovations and promote the adoption of good practices, DAE and DoF arranged a number of ‘Fairs’ or melas. BGIF supported three fairs, two from DAE and one DoF fair.

  • DAE organized the fair at Yunus Ali khan Degree College, Amtali, Barguna from in December, 2019. United Purpose with their project ‘Sustainable Water Management through Indigenous Finance and Technology’ and Practical Action with their project ‘Sustaining Sack Farming Practices through Agro-met Services in Coastal Polder Areas of Bangladesh’ participated in the fair.
  • DoF organized a fair at Patuakhali District Fisheries Office premises during July 2019. Innovision Agro Service Ltd. participated the fair with their project ‘Augmenting homestead Pangasius aquaculture productivity in three Upazilas of Patuakhali through community participation’.

Local farmers, WMG members, value chain actors participated the fair with great interest.

Table 38.3: BGIF fairs
Location Date GoB Department BGIF project
Patuakhali, DoF office 20-22 July 2019 DoF Pangasius (Innovision)
Patuakhali, Barguna 7-9 Dec 2019 DAE SWIFT (UP) & Sack Farming (PA)

Notes[edit | edit source]

  1. ‘Other’ category contracts are funded through the BGIF but whilst they were important for BGP objectives, they were not aimed at innovative approaches and are mostly works contracts, and not services.
  2. Duration has been calculated as the time in-between the signed contract (official start) and date of final report (official end).
  3. Does not include 3 feasibility studies that were cancelled.
  4. The Water Fund has funded a number of large ‘other’ category projects and when looking at total expenditure/allocation, the two funds are almost on par. In addition, many water projects were transferred to WMKIP of Deltares/IWM.

References[edit | edit source]

See more[edit | edit source]

Previous chapter:
Chapter 37: Purpose, fund evolution and management
Blue Gold Lessons Learnt Wiki
Section H: Innovation Fund
Next chapter:
Chapter 39: BGIF Lessons Learnt

Section H: Innovation Fund
Chapter 37: Purpose, fund evolution and management Chapter 38: Overview of BGIF Projects Chapter 39: BGIF Lessons learnt
  1. Blue Gold Innovation Fund
  2. Evolution of the Fund
  3. Fund Management
  1. Project types and the innovation tunnel
  2. Projects in the Water Management Fund and Productive Sector Fund
  3. Fairs by GoB departments
  4. Annex 38.1 BGP Projects
Blue Gold Wiki
Executive summary: A Call for Action
Section A: Background and context Section B: Development Outcomes Section C: Water Infrastructure


Summary and Introduction


Section D: BGP Interventions: Participatory Water Management Section E: Agricultural Development Section F: Responsible Development: Inclusion and Sustainability




Section G: Project Management Section H: Innovation Fund Files and others