Glossary and acronyms

From Blue Gold Program Wiki
access to markets
Generally refers to how many and/or in which way people are able to buy or sell, and reach, a reliable supplier or buyer in a market
Additional Director General
Annual Development Plan
Agricultural Extension Officer
Agricultural Growth and Employment Program
a shallow earth bund on plot boundaries which allows the ponding of water for basin irrigation
Agricultural Information Systems
a rice crop usually planted in March/April under dryland conditions, but in areas liable to deep flooding. Also known as deepwater rice. Harvested from October to December. All varieties are highly sensitive to daylength.
Annual Review Mission, the broad objective of which was to secure and where possible further enhance the relevance, efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability of the project. ARM members were individuals who were appointed by, and reported directly to, EKN and BWDB/DAE
service provider to bepari and paikers in wholesale markets. Facilitates the buying/selling process, and may provide negotiation assistance with purchases, storage space, selling space, short term and seasonal credit, and arrange truck transport of goods purchased by bepari to market
a rice crop planted in March/April under dryland conditions. Matures during pre-monsoonal showers and is harvested in June/July. Insensitive to daylength.
B Aman
broadcast aman; a rice crop usually planted in March/April under dryland conditions, but in areas liable to deep flooding. Also known as deepwater rice. Harvested from October to December. All varieties are highly sensitive to daylength.
B Aus
broadcast aus; a rice crop planted in March/April under dryland conditions. Matures during pre-monsoonal showers and is harvested in June/July. Insensitive to daylength.
Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation
brackish-water shrimp species
oxbow lake
a homestead in which one or more households (chula) of the same kinship group share facilities within an enclosed or semi-enclosed compound
Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute
basok leaves
basok leaves are the leaves of a medicinal shrub found along road roadside, often used as fencing of houses in our polders (especially in Satkhira and Khulna) that are dried and then sold to pharmaceutical companies for medicine preparation, in particular to prepare cough syrup.
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics
Bangladesh Chemical Industries Corporation
Bangladesh Delta Plan
Business Development Services
Bangladesh Taka
wetland inundated for at least one season per year, formed by the inundation of a low-lying natural depression
Any individual or group who, in one way or another is favourably influenced by the project.
key wholesaler in the supply chain, moves goods between markets by buying in source markets and selling in destination markets, and exerts the main influence on price earned by farmers.
Blue Gold Innovation Fund
Blue Gold Program
Bangladesh Haor and Wetland Development Board
area varies between localities - range 30-40 decimals (0.12-0.16 ha)
Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture
A rice crop planted under irrigation during the dry season from December to March and harvested between April and June. Local boro varieties are more tolerant of cool temperatures and are usually planted in areas which are subject to early flooding. Improved varieties, less tolerant of cool conditions, are usually transplanted from February onwards. All varieties are insensitive to daylength.
Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (an NGO)
branch khal
Secondary or tertiary drainage channel (in Bangla sakha khal)
eggplant, aubergine
small earthen embankment or dam
Bangladesh Water Development Board, government agency which is responsible for surface water and groundwater management in Bangladesh, and lead implementing agency for the Blue Gold Program
Bangladesh Water and Flood Management Strategy
cage fishing
cage culture is an aquaculture production system in which the fish are held in floating net pens using existing water resources (riverss and ponds) with water passing freely between the fish and the surrounding water body for water circulation and waste removal into the surrounding water.
an idealised hydrologically independent drainage unit within a polder - comprising a network of inter-connected khals draining to a regulator from where water is discharged to a peripheral river. Because the land levels in a polder vary within a small range (typically up to a maximum of 1.5 m), water flows can be affected by downstream water conditions and eventually drain through more than one regulator at diffferent times of year. .
catchment planning
Identification and planning of both interventions and operations & maintenance within the catchment, resulting in an action plan for the catchment.
Community-led Agricultural Water Management
Community-led Agricultural Water Management - with DAE, Blue Gold established a network of schemes for demonstration purposes where locally-applicable annual cropping patterns are introduced along with water level control facilitated by small-scale water infrastructure, and the development of value chain skills in farmers
Community Development Facilitator
Community Development Facilitator - a member of the Blue Gold technical assistance team who lived and worked in a specific polder, and provided the main point of contact between the project and the polder communities
Comprehensive Disaster Management Program
Char Development and Settlement Project
Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services
Coastal Embankment Improvement Project
Community-led Fisheries and Water Management
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
husked rice
accreted sediment in a river course or estuary, including both lateral (point-bars) and medial (braid-bars). Chars (or sand bars) emerge as islands within the river channel (island chars) or as attached land to the riverbanks (attached chars), create new opportunities for temporary settlements and agriculture.
Literally a traditional cooking stove. Used here to identify a household - an independent economic family unit - which shares kitchen facilities and eats together
cropping intensity
Cropping intensity - The number of crop harvest per unit land per year. The average cropping intensity (CI) is calculated as the total area of all crops per year divided by the area of cultivable land. In its CI calculations BGP treats fish ghers as another crop; the DAE method excludes fish ghers in its CI calculations. Hence the CI calculated by BGP is higher than as calculated by DAE.
Cropping Intensity Initiative
Cropping Intensity Initiative: Year-long demonstrations with farmers on increasing cropping intensity related to improved water management, also involving market actors, and by organising demand driven sessions and workshops
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre
Community-led Fisheries
Community Organiser
collective action
collective actions
Collective action - by a producer group is one way to partially overcome constraints such as in weak markets, where inputs and services essential to production innovations, are generally scarce, costly to access and/or to obtain. Collective action is working in group instead of individually in order to gain economic or social benefit. Through collective action, farmers can address constraints in their market linkages, organise their activities jointly and use their collective bargaining power to reduce input costs through bulk purchase, or to obtain services from buyers such as farm-level collection of produce
commercial agriculture
agricultural production aimed at meeting market-demands. It is based on establishing a profitable farming unit and involves a multitude of business relations with other actors in the market system. Used in contrast to subsistence farming which focuses mostly on home consumption.
Community Animal Health Workers
Community Animal Health Workers: members of the community who are trained to provide farmers with basic health and production support for their animals
Community Livestock Workers
Community Livestock Workers: members of the community who are trained to provide farmers with basic health and production support for their livestock
community mobilization
Community mobilization is a process that brings together different societal factions to undertake development activities. Within BGP this especially refers to organizing the community members into Water Management Groups
control structure
A permanent structure placed in a farm canal, ditch, or subsurface drainage conduit, which provides control of the discharge of surface and/or subsurface drainage by menas of flashboards, gates, valves, risers, or pipes.
Compartmentalization Pilot Project (CPP)-FAP-20
Community Poultry Workers
Community Poultry Workers: members of the community who are trained to provide farmers with basic health and production support for their poultry
Challenge Programme on Water and Food
Earthen embankment placed across a khal or river to prevent water flow.
Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia
A culvert is a structure that allows water to flow beneath a road, railroad, trail, or similar obstruction from one side to the other.
Chief of Water Management (BWDB)
courtyard sessions
Department of Agricultural Extension, a department of the Ministry of Agriculture responsible for disseminating scientific research and new knowledge on agricultural practices through communication and learning activities for farmers in agriculture, agricultural marketing, nutrition and business studies.
Department of Agricultural Marketing
Danish International Development Agency
one hundredth of an acre (0.004 ha)
Department for International Development (UK government's development department); since September 2020, known as Foreign and Commonwealth Development Office - FCDO - after a merger with Foreign and Commonwealth Office - FCO
Director General
unhusked rice (paddy)
manually operated rice husking machine
diversification of agriculture
Movement of resources from (few) low value commodities to more higher value ones, increasing the total production value and reducing risks
Department of Livestock Services, a government department under the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock responsible for the livestock industry in Bangladesh
Department of Cooperatives
Department of Environment
Department of Fisheries, a government department under the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock responsible for regulating the fisheries industry in Bangladesh
Department of Planning III, one of three planning departments in BWDB headed by a Superintending Engineer which reports to the Chief Engineer (Civil) Planning to the Assistant Director General (Planning)
Development Project Proforma
Development Project Proforma: a formal document which sets out the intention of a GoB organisation to invest in a development project, seeking approval for the investment and, if successful, a budget allocation. The DPP follows a prescribed format, including the project’s financial and physical scope, benefits, and proposals for monitoring and internal and external audits. The approval of a development project proposal follows a number of stages: formation with preliminary studies, formulation to develop greater detail and with additional information to make the economic case for the project, scrutiny by the executing agencies and concerned ministries, appraisal by the Planning Commission, recommendation for approval by Project Evaluation Committee (PEC), Minister/ECNEC approval, and inclusion of a budgetary allocation in the Annual Development Plan (ADP).
drainage congestion
the south-western coastal zone is characterised by broad tidal flats and fluvio-tidal plains, lying approximately 1 metre above sea level, with drainage provided by numerous tidal creeks and channels a some major rivers. Empolderisation now protects the intrusion of sea water to agricultural areas but restricts the deposition of sediments to within the channels, thus reducing the drainage capacity of the rivers and channels, causing drainage congestion.
Disaster Risk Reduction
Disaster Risk Reduction - The Union Disaster Management Committee (UDMC) has been given the mandate to lead disaster preparedness, mitigation, emergency response and post disaster rehabilitation, by informing local people, empowering them to take practical measures to reduce risk at household and community levels and to disseminate success stories of reducing disaster risks widely among local people.
Deputy Team Leader
deep tube wells
Executive Committee
EC members
Members of the Executive Committees of Water Management Organisations, i.e. of Water Management Groups or Water Management Associations. Each Executive Committee consists of 12 members, of whom at least 30% should be women as per government rules
Environmental Clearance Certificate
economic growth
Increase in the capacity of a country or an economic region to produce goods and services. It also refers to the increase in market value of the goods and services produced by an economy. It is usually calculated using inflation adjusted figures, in order to discount the effect of inflation on the price of the goods and services produced
Estuary Development Program
Environmental Impact Assessment
Early Implementation Project
Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the contractual representative of the Minister of Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation of the Netherlands and signatory to the agreement for the Blue Gold Program with the External Resources Division of the Ministry of Finance as the signatory for the Government of Bangladesh
Earthen dyke or bundh raised above surrounding ground level, for example so that roads or railway lines are above highest flood levels, or so that an area is empoldered to protect it from external floods and saline waters.
Euroconsult Mott MacDonald
to surround an area of low-lying land by an earthen embankment to prevent flooding by river or seawater, with associated structures which are provided to either drain excess rainwater within the polder or to admit freshwater to be stored in a khal for subsequent use for irrigation.
empowerment is a process, enabling people to make choices and convert these into desired actions and results. In doing so, people take control of their own lives, improve their own position, set their own agenda, gain skills, develop self-confidence, solve problems, and develop self-sufficiency. Empowerment leads to genuine participation of all actors as it is a process of gaining self-confidence for individual development as well as to contribute towards development of others.
enabling environment
an environment of policies, regulations, norms, institutions, and overall economic governance which allows market systems to function and perform well
Earth Observation
Expression of Interest
East Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority
Equitable Water Management
fall boards
boards temporarily placed in slots or grooves in the pier walls of regulators or sluices to prevent the flow of water during maintenance of the structure or gates.
Food and Agriculture Organization
Flood Action Plan
small traders
Flood Control and Drainage
Flood Control, Drainage and Irrigation
feasibility study
feasibility studies
A feasibility study is an analysis that takes all of a project's relevant factors into account—including economic, technical, legal, and scheduling considerations—to ascertain the likelihood of completing the project successfully.
feminization of agriculture
Feminization of agriculture refers to the measurable increase of women's participation in the agricultural sector. This can be due to men taking up non-farm employment locally, male out-migration from rural areas to urban areas or abroad, poverty (need for women to raise income), and/or women's empowerment (women taking own initiatives to engage in agricultural production). The increase in agricultural productivity requiring more labour input (be it family or wage labour) can also contribute to a larger role of women in agriculture.
Farmer Field Day
Farmer Field Days
Farmer Field Day - Exchange events organized at the end of each Farmer Field School to share the FFS learnings with other community members
Farmer Field School
Farmer Field Schools
Farmer Field School - A group-based learning process through which farmers carry out experiential learning activities that help them to understand the ecology of their fields, based on simple experiments, regular field observations and group analysis. The knowledge gained from these activities enables participants to make their own locally specific decisions about crop management practices. This approach represents a radical departure from earlier agricultural extension programmes, in which farmers were expected to adopt generalized recommendations that are formulated by specialists from outside the community.
Focus Group Discussions - in which a group of participants from similar backgrounds or experiences gather to discuss a specific topic of interest, guided by a group facilitator who introduces the topics for discussion and helps the group to participate in a lively and natural discussion amongst themselves
flap gate
Hinged gate on the river-side of a regulator vent which automatically closes when water rises above the country-side water level.
The practice of admitting (fresh or saline) water for irrigation (or shrimp production) through regulators or inlets.
FFS Organiser in the technical assistance (TA) team
Flood and Riverbank Erosion Risk Management Investment Program - A program financed by ADB and EKN with consultancy services provided by Northwest Hydraulic Consutants and Mott MacDonald, which provided structural and non-structural flood and riverbank erosion risk management measures in three high priority subproject areas, with the aim in subsequent projects of extending the protected reaches using designs adjusted to current riverbank erosion conditions and considering the possibilities of reclaiming lost floodplain land.
Feasibility Study / Feasibility Stage, especially of Blue Gold Innovation Fund projects
Farmer Trainer
Farmer Trainers
Farmer Trainer - Well-performing and capable farmers, previously trained in Farmer Field Schools, who became FFS facilitator themselves after ToT training
Financial Year
Gender Action Plan
gross domestic product
General Economics Division, one of six divisions in the Planning Commission, with responsibility for the preparation of mid- and long-term plans; M&E of plans; and the determination of macroeconomic scenarios
Refers to socially constructed and therefore learned roles and responsibilities ascribed to men and women, girls and boys based on their sex. Gender is not the same as sex, the physical and biological attributes that make someone female, male or both. Gender comprises the expectations, roles, attitudes and behaviours of women and men. Gender roles change over time and vary within and between cultures, societies and classes.
gender blindness
Gender-blindness refers to the failure to identify or acknowledge differences on the basis of gender where it is significant. Projects, programs, policies and attitudes which are gender blind do not take into account the different roles and needs of men and women. They maintain or reinforce the status quo and will not help transform the unequal structure of gender relations.
gender equality
Gender equality exists when men and women, boys and girls are attributed equal social value, equal rights and equal responsibilities; and men and women have equal access to the means (resources, opportunities) to exercise those rights and responsibilities. This does not mean that women and men will become the same, but rather that rights, responsibilities and opportunities will not depend on whether someone is born male or female.
gender equity
Equity strategies refer to the processes used to achieve gender equality. Equity involves fairness in representation, participation, and benefits afforded to males and females. The goal is that both groups have a fair chance of having their needs met and that they have equal access to opportunities for realizing their full potential as human beings.
gender indicators
Gender indicators are performance indicators that help assess or measure the effects of a policy, programme or project on changes in gender relations and the status of men and women, and hence the extent of advancement of gender equality and/or women's empowerment. Gender indicators can be quantitative and qualitative.
gender issues
Any issue where relations, differences, connections and/or inequalities between men and women have either a positive or negative effect or influence
gender mainstreaming
This is the process of systematically recognizing and taking into account gender issues (such as differences between the conditions, roles and needs of women and men) within core activities of projects and programmes and covering design, implementation and M&E. Gender mainstreaming also takes into account the likely implications for men and women of planned interventions.
gender relations
Gender relations are the specific sub-set of social relations uniting men and women as social groups in a particular community, including how power and access to and control over resources are distributed between the sexes. Gender relations intersect with all other influences on social relations - age, ethnicity, race, religion - to determine the position and identity of people in a social group. Since gender relations are a social construct, they can be transformed over time to become more equitable.
gender-sensitive approach
Refers to recognizing and taking into account gender issues, aiming to promote gender equality
Gender Equality Strategy and Action Plan (of BWDB)
An area enclosed by low embankments to store either freshwater or brackish water for the production of fish, shrimps or prawns.
Geographic Information Systems
Gender and Leadership Development (training)
Government of Bangladesh; a donor to the Blue Gold Program
freshwater prawn species
Government of the Netherlands; a donor to the Blue Gold Program
Guidelines for Participatory Water Management
kinship group which traces its origins to a common male ancestor - an important element of social identity in a village
A hajol is an unfired earthenware nesting vessel for egg hatching, with small receptacles for water and seed to provide the immediate needs. The hajol saves the hen effort and time for searching food, thus ensuring proper hatching in less time, thereby reducing egg waste.
small rural market, held weekly or bi-weekly
herringbone bond - a brickwork pattern used as the wearing course for rural roads with a low traffic volume
0-30 cm: intermittent flooding, land suited to HYV T Aman in monsoon season
Horizontal Learning
Learning from peers; and in the context of Blue Gold, farmer-to-farmer learning in which a host WMG invites representatives from visiting WMGs to witness an event - such as the harvesting of a new variety of rice - to pass on the knowledge and lessons gained from their experience
Human Resources
high value crop(s)
High Yielding Variety
High Yielding Variety - Introduced varieties developed through formal breeding programs. HYVs have a higher yield potential than local varieties but require correspondingly high inputs of fertiliser and irrigation to achieve high yields.
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
Integrated Crop Management
Integrated Coastal Resources Database
Information Communication Technology
Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) - Assistance to the Programme Development Office of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management Programme (PDO-ICZM)
Innovation Fund
International Financing Institution eg World Bank, Asian Development Bank
Integrated Farm Management Component (DANIDA-funded program)
Income Generating Activity
Irrigation Management Improvement project (IMIP)
Inter-Ministerial Review Committee
The inclusion of the (interests of) different types of people and treating them fairly and equally, considering their different roles and interests in water management
International NGO
Structure designed to only admit (fresh or saline) water across an embankment.
intensification of agriculture
Increasing agricultural production per unit of inputs, such as per unit of land
A defined set of temporary activities through which facilitators seek to effect change
The Policy and Operations Evaluation Department (IOB) is the independent evaluation service of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands which researches and prepares reports on the outcomes of Dutch foreign policy for reasons of accountability and so that the findings can be used in adjusting future policymaking
Input Providers
Integrated Pest Management
Integrated Planning for Sustainable Water Management
(Guidelines for) Integrated Planning for Sustainable Water Resources Management
in-polder water management
In-polder water management; term used in Blue Gold to describe water management interventions which aim to deliver excess water from the field through field drains to secondary khals and thence to primary khals for evacuation through the sluice/regulator
International Rice Research Institute
Institutional Strengthening and Project Management
Institute of Water Modelling
International Water Management Institute
Integrated Water Resources Management
Integrated Water Resources Management - Internationally-accepted approach for efficient, equitable and sustainable development and management of water resources especially applicable where there are multiple stakeholder interests with conflicting demands.
Japanese Bank for International Cooperation
impermanent, unofficial; an unimproved version, eg earthen road, earth-walled house
Local pulse crop
drainage channel or canal
The wet season - typically mid-March to mid-October - characterised by rain and high temperatures
The first part of the kharif season (mid-March to mid-June). Rainfall is variable and temperatures are high. The main crops are aus, summer vegetables and pulses. Broadcast aman and jute are planted.
The second part of the kharif season (mid-June to mid-October) characterised by heavy rain and floods. T Aman is the major crop grown in this season. Jute is harvested.
Land owned by the state, including recently accreted land
Khulna Jessore Drainage Rehabilitation Project
Krishi Samabay Samity - farmer cooperative
Protected dug well
assumed in this report to operate up to 0.5 acres (0.2 ha)
Landless Contracting Societies
Groups of usually landless people who are contracted by an agency to carry out a certain type and volume of earthwork within a given time period. Term including 'landless' is generally used by Local Government Engineering Department (LGED) whereas BWDB's PWMR 2014 uses 'Labour' Contracting Societies.
large farmer
assumed in this report to operate more than 5.5 acres (2.23 ha)
Local Consultative Group
Groups of usually landless people who are contracted by an agency to carry out a certain type and volume of earthwork within a given time period. For BWDB, the rules for engagement of an LCS are set down in PWMR 2014 Chapter 6
Labour Contracting Societies
Labour Contracting Societies - Groups of usually landless people who are contracted by an agency to carry out a certain type and volume of earthwork within a given time period. For BWDB, the rules for engagement of an LCS are set down in PWMR 2014 Chapter 6
Local Government
Local Government Engineering Department
Local Government Institutions - Union Parishad, Upazila Parishad etc
lift gate
vertical gate typically raised and lowered by operating a handwheel up and down a vertical screw, with the gate kept in position by means of steel channels set in the walls of a regulator.
A livelihood is a way of making a living. It comprises capabilities, skills, assets (including material and social resources), and activities that households put together to produce food, meet basic needs, earn income, or establish a means of living in any other way.
livelihood strategies
The strategies that people employ in order to utilize and transfer assets to produce income today and deal with problems tomorrow. These strategies change and adapt in response to various shocks, external influences, institutional norms and rules, and other factors.
local varieties
Varieties developed by farmers, sometimes referred to as local improved varieties (LIVs)
Prone to seasonal (<9 months) or perennial flooding (>9 months), land on which B aman can be grown in the monsoon season. Flood depth 180-300 cm or more
Land Reclamation Project
low value crop(s)
Male / Female
Monitoring and Evaluation
actions taken to prevent or repair the deterioration of water management infrastructure and to keep the physical components of a water management system in such a state that they can serve their intended function.
Any formal or informal structure (not necessarily a physical place) in which buyers and sellers exchange goods, labour, or services for cash or other goods. The word 'market' can simply mean the place in which goods or services are exchanged. Essentially, markets are defined by forces of supply and demand, rather than geographical location
market linkages
Also known as 'business linkages'. Linkages refer to the trading relationships between and among producers, input providers and traders, and other enterprises in a supply chain or value chain. We refer to Backward linkages on the input side and Forward linkages on the output side of the producer.
market orientation
Within BGP this refers to enhancing insights of especially FFS participants in how markets work, how to collect market information, facilitating linkages with market actors and increasing negotiation capacities
unit of weight 37.3 kg, equal to 40 seer
medium farmer
assumed in this report to operate between 2.5 acres and 5.5 acres (1.0 to 2.23 ha)
medium highland
Prone to seasonal flooding, land suited to local varieties of aus and T aman in the monsoon season. Flood depth: 30-90 cm
medium lowland
Prone to seasonal flooding, land suited to B Aman in monsoon season. Flood depth: 90-180 cm
Micro Finance Institute
Market-oriented Farmer Field School
Market-oriented Farmer Field School - Farmer Field Schools dealing with cash crops or other commercial production, such as aquaculture, integrating market orientation. Specific MFS were conducted in the first years of BGP; later all FFS included market orientation.
Management Information System
Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Cooperatives
Ministry of Agriculture
village money lender
Memorandum of Understanding
an administrative unit chiefly used for cadastral land registration
Ministry of Water Resources
mPower is the social enterprise which is dedicated to information technology solutions and strategies that maximize impact on people’s lives.
Monitoring, Reflection & Learning
metric ton (tonne)
Mid – Term Review Mission
New Agriculture Extension Policy
popular theatre, a living tradition especially in rural areas of Bangladesh, and a powerful and accepted instrument which can be used to raise discussion on sensitive issues
National Economic Council
Non-Governmental Organisation
National Seed Board
National Water Management Plan
National Water Policy
National Water Resources Commission
National Water Resources Database
Operation and Maintenance
O&M Sub-Committee
A sub-committee of a Water Management Association (WMA) responsible for the planning operation and maintenance of water infrastructure in a specific catchment.
Office of the Chief of Water Management (in BWDB) responsible for the 'establishment of water user organizations, their training and participation, in project planning, implementation, operation and maintenance and cost recovery'
Open Data Kit
On‐Farm Research Division
O&M Performance Improvement
Open Market Sale
the adjustment of gates in water management infrastructure to control hydraulic conditions (water levels and discharges) in a water management system.
outlet structure
gated structure (typically with only a flap gate on the river-side) designed to drain water through the polder embankment to an external tidal river channel
a person who farms or otherwise operates his own land
buys produce directly from individual farmers and sells bulk produce to arotdar or to destination market. Exerts a main influence on price earned by farmers.
A process through which stakeholders influence and share control over development initiatives and the decisions and resources which affect them.
participatory water management
Participatory Water Management
A process by which the local stakeholders are directly and actively involved in identification, planning, design, implementation, operation & maintenance and evaluation of a water management project.
PBDP 2100
Preparation of Bangladesh Delta Plan 2100
Program Coordinating Director
Project Director
Polder Development Plan
Polder Development Plan - presents an integrated analysis and planning for a specific polder covering community mobilization, water management, agriculture, business development, environment, gender, and institutions. A deliverable product under the BWDB Development Project Proforma (DPP). PDPs for all 22 polders are available through the File Library.
peripheral rivers
In the coastal zone, the river or rivers surrounding a polder which carry the outflow from the regulators or sluices to the sea
Producer Group Facilitator
contiguous area of land operated as a single unit by a farmer - average area of 27 decimals (0.11 ha), with a normal range between 10 and 70 decimals (0.04 to 0.28 ha)
Participatory Monitoring
Progress Marker
Project Management Committee
An area of low-lying land surrounded by an earthen embankment to prevent flooding by river or seawater, with associated structures which are provided to either drain excess rainwater within the polder or to admit freshwater to be stored in a khal for subsequent use for irrigation.
Public Private Partnership
primary infrastructure
The main channels or khals within a polder through which excess rain or flood water is discharged to an external tidal river channel and thence to the sea via a regulator, sluice or outlet in the polder embankment.
productive work
Labour that results in goods or services that have monetary value in the capitalist system and are thus compensated by the producers in the form of a paid wage, or otherwise results into (monetary) income. Productive work includes subsistence agriculture and homestead production.
Private Sector
Program Steering Committee
Private Sector Development
Participatory Small Scale Water Resources Sector Project
Patuakhali Science and Technology University
permanent, official, an improved version: brick-paved road as opposed to an earthen road; brick-built house as opposed to earth-walled house
Participatory Water Management Rules (2014)
The dry season (typically mid-October to mid-March) with low or minimal rainfall, high evapotranspiration rates, low temperatures and clear skies with bright sunshine. Crops grown are boro, pulses, sunflower, sesame and mungbean.
Regional Accounts Committee (BWDB) is inter alia responsible for the administration of payments for construction contracts
Revised Development Project Proforma
the principal function of a regulator or drainage sluice is to allow the drainage of water from the polder into a peripheral river when there is a differential head across the regulator (ie when the polder or country-side water level exceeds the level in the tidal river). The regulator is provided with a lift gate on the country-side (to allow freshwater to be held in the khal for irrigation during the dry season) and a flap gate on the river-side (to prevent water entry from the river channel into the polder during high tide conditions). A frame is provided on the river-side so that the flap gate can be lifted when there is freshwater in the river (during the monsoon flood season), thus allowing freshwater to be stored in the khal within the polder and used for irrigation during the dry season. The size of the culvert is determined from the drainage area served by the structure.
reproductive work
Labour that is associated with the private sphere and involves anything that people have to do for themselves that is not for the purposes of receiving a wage or producing goods. It includes cleaning and repairs, cooking, care, and fetching water and fuel. Reproductive work is also referred to as unpaid care work (UCW) or domestic work and care.
Resource Farmers
Resource Farmers (RF) are members of Farmer Field Schools (FFSs). They are selected from the FFS groups to lead other members in organizing different useful collective actions and to maintain networks on behalf of the members. These RFs are given additional capacity building training to enhance their knowlege on simple record keeping and business skills.
responsible development
In BGP's context this refers to inclusive and sustainable development as transversal elements within BGP's approach, with inclusiveness meaning that also women and poor household benefit from BGP
retention structure
a structure that provides for the storage of runoff and is designed to maintain a permanent pool of water.
riverbank erosion
the removal of materials in the river bank by water flowing in the river channel; also termed bank scour. In coastal polders, riverbank erosion - if unchecked - can result in breaches to polder embankments - where they are aligned close to rivers - and consequent loss of human and animal life as well as damage to farmland, crops, housing, and other infrastructure.
Ready Made Garments
Return on Investment
River Research Institute - a national public organisation under the Ministry of Water Resources, headquartered at Harukandi in Faridpur, with two technical directorates for hydraulic research and geotechnical research
rural transformation
A process of change in rural areas strengthening the local economies
Sub-Assistant Agricultural Officer (DAE)
Sub-Assistant Engineer (BWDB)
saline intrusion
The influx of sea water into an area that is not normally exposed to high salinity levels - for example, the inflow of seawater into a fresh water wetland or a fresh water aquifer.
An increase in salt content within soils due to (a) 'primary salinity' in which natural processes cause fluctuations in soil salt content; or (b) 'secondary salinity' - which is of greater concern - where man-made or climate change affect natural soil salinity levels
association or society
South-Central hydrological region, one of the eight hydrological regions covering Bangladesh, with an area of 15,436 km2 including the Arial Khan river
Sub-Divisional Engineer (BWDB)
Superintending Engineer (BWDB)
secondary infrastructure
Smaller channels connecting sub-catchments to main channels, sometimes with associated minor structures (e.g. small one vent sluice) which regulate flow between primary and secondary infrastructure. Secondary channels may also be called sakha-khal or branch-khals.
Sedimentation is the process by which fine particles of silt and clay suspended in river water settle out, for example when there is a drop in velocity.
sediment transport
sediment transport is the general term used for transport of silt, sand, gravel, boulders in rivers
unit of weight 0.93 kg, equal to 80 tola
a person who operates land owned by others under an agreed output and input sharing arrangement
SIBDP 2100
Support to the Implementation of the Bangladesh Delta Plan 2100
Typically undesirable increase in concentration and deposition of water-borne silt particles in a body of water.
System Improvement and Management Transfer
six step approach
An approach in six steps to develop Water Management Groups developed by the previous IPSWAM project
A vertical gate to control the flow of water; also referred to as 'regulator'
small farmer
assumed in this report to operate between 0.5 acres and 2.5 acres (0.2 to 1.0 ha)
Section Officer (BWDB)
Systems Rehabilitation Project
Second Small Scale Flood Control Drainage and Irrigation Project
Small-scale water management structure: an initiative to improve in-polder drainage and irrigation conditions in Blue Gold polders which was started in 2018. The improvement of secondary and tertiary infrastructure across the coastal zone will involve a large number of small-scale structures and huge volumes of earthwork. The planning, design, contracting, supervising and monitoring of this small-scale infrastructure would be highly resource-intensive if provided with the same level of involvement as is provided by government engineering departments in large-scale infrastructure. Building on the success of the CAWM schemes, a pilot fund was made available so that WMOs could plan and implement small-scale water management infrastructure (SSWMI) with a relatively low-level of supervision from government or TA staff.
Small Scale Water Resources Development Sector Project
shallow tube wells
Part of the catchment which is not directly connected to the regulator, and is hydrologically independent from other parts of the catchment.
sustainable water resources management
management actions required to address the changing demands on water resource systems both in the present and the long-term future so as to avoid system degradation
Strengthened Value Chain
South-West hydrological region, one of the eight hydrological regions covering Bangladesh, with an area of 26,226 km2 including the Garai, Kumar and Bhairab-Kapatakhya rivers
Southwest Area Integrated Water Resources Planning and Management Project
T Aman
transplanted aman; a rice crop, with nurseries for seedlings started in June/July, for transplanting in July/August in areas liable to a maximum flood depth of about 50cm. Harvested in November/December. Local varieties are sensitive to daylength whereas modern varieties are insensitive or only slightly sensitive.
T Aus
transplanted aus; The distinction between a late-planted boro and early transplanted aus is academic since the same varieties may be used. Insensitive to daylength.
Training & Communications
Technical Assistance
tertiary infrastructure
smaller channels connecting fields to secondary infrastructure, sometimes with associated small scale structures (gated pipe or box culverts) which regulate flow between secondary channels and tertiary channels. Tertiary channels may also be called sakha-khals or branch-khals.
tidal flooding
tidal flooding is the temporary inundation of low-lying areas during high tide events.
tidal rivers
river whose flow and level are influenced by tides
Team Leader
Training Needs Assessment
Theory of Change, planning tool
unit of weight 11.7 g
Terms of Reference
Training of trainers
Technical Report
Triple Supper Phosphate
Technology Transfer for Agricultural Production (DAE)
Upazila Agricultural Extension Officer (DAE)
Upazila Agricultural Officer (DAE)
Upper Middle Income Country
unified approach
The Blue Gold approach which integrated the earlier 'four components' (ie social empowerment, water management infrastructure, agricultural technologies and farming-as-a-business) into a single work process
Lowest tier of local government
Union Parishad
Union Parishad - Union Council chaired by an elected Union Chairman
Upazila Nirbahi Officer or Upazila Executive Officer. Appointed head of the civil administration at Upazila level
Unpaid care work (UCW) or Domestic work and care
Unpaid care work refers to all unpaid services provided within a household for its members, and includes caring for children, elderly and sick people and domestic tasks as washing, cooking, shopping, cleaning and helping other families with their chores. Unpaid care work is reproductive work.
Upazila Parishad chairman
Elected official assigned as Chief Executive of the Upazila Parishad.
Upazila Parishad
Upazila Parishad or Upazila Council: Middle tier of local government, between Union and District, chaired by an elected Upazila Chairman. The civil administration at this level is headed by the UNO
An ustad is a village-level technological entrepeneur who runs a local business providing services and/or goods eg electrical, mechanical repairs; cast iron foundry etc)
Value Chain
value chain
Value chain - the set of activities that need to be performed in a specific production sector in order to deliver the end product to the consumer. Agricultural value chains typically include input supply, growing/production, processing and marketing/distribution.
Value Chain Analysis
Value Chain Development
Value Chain Selection
very lowland
>300cm seasonal or perennial flooding, does not permit growing of B Aman in the monsoon season
Union sub-unit. Each Union comprises of 9 wards. Union Parishad members are elected to represent their ward
ward sobha
Ward-level public meeting to consult the ward inhabitants in the planning process of the Union
Water Resources Plan Organisation
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
Soil is regarded as waterlogged when it is nearly saturated with water much of the time such that its air phase is restricted and anaerobic conditions prevail. In agriculture, various crops need air (specifically, oxygen) to a greater or lesser depth in the soil. Waterlogging of the soil stops air getting in. How near the water table must be to the surface for the ground to be classed as waterlogged, varies with the purpose in view. A crop's demand for freedom from waterlogging may vary between seasons of the year.
water management
human intervention in the capture, conveyance, utilisation and drainage of surface and/or ground water in a certain area: a process of social interaction between stakeholders around the issue of water control.
Water Management Association
Water Management Associations
Water Management Association - In Blue Gold, the polder-level representative of WMGs, and signatory to an O&M Agreement with BWDB
Water Management Cooperative Association
The legal entity for a Water Management Organisation under registry by the Department of Cooperatives
Water Management Federation
Water Management Federation - The organization of local stakeholders at the apex level of the water resource project/sub-project/scheme
water management for development
The strapline of the Blue Gold Program for a transformative approach to smallholder agriculture which combines water infrastructure and locally-led initiatives for better water management, using modern agricultural technology and a business-orientation.
Water Management Group
Water Management Groups
Water Management Group - The basic organizational unit in Blue Gold representing local stakeholders from a hydrological or social unit (para/village). Through Blue Gold, 511 WMGs have been formed and registered. The average WMG covers an area of around 230 ha has 365 households or a population of just over 1,500.
Water Management Group Action Plan
Water Management Group Action Plan - A plan drafted by water management groups; initially as a formal requirement for registration; later on as a building block for a sluice catchment management plan
Water Management Organization
Water Management Organizations
Water Management Organizations - The common name of organizations of the local stakeholders of a water resource project/sub-project/scheme. The concept WMO typically refers to WMGs and WMAs (and/or WMFs) together
Water management partnership
Regular cooperation between Water Management Organisations and partner organisations, such as Local Government Institutions, BWDB, DAE, community-based organisations and private sector organisations
water management stakeholders
Individuals (both men and women) whose livelihood is directly affected by a water management system, be it positively or negatively.
water productivity
the amount of output (such as crops) produced per unit water
World Bank
Women’s Business Centre
WorldFish (CGIAR)
Water Management Cooperative Association
Water Management Improvement Project (WB-funded)
Water Management Knowledge and Innovation Program - starting in December 2017 and led by Deltares and the Institute of Water Modelling (IWM) with the aim of contributing to the long term development goals for the Southern Coastal Region as well as to objectives of the Blue Gold Program through tested and sustainable water management innovations, knowledge development and participatory action research.
women's economic empowerment
Women’s Economic Empowerment - Economic empowerment is the capacity of women and men to participate in, contribute to and benefit from growth processes in ways that recognise the value of their contributions, respect their dignity and make it possible to negotiate a fairer distribution of the benefits of growth. Women's economic empowerment increases women's access to economic resources and opportunities including jobs, financial services, property and other productive assets, skills development and market information.
women's empowerment
The process that women get more control over their own life. The following three dimensions are commonly distinguished: (1) Access to resources, including productive, human and social resources; such as inputs, assets, credit, skills, knowledge and social networks; (2) Increased participation and influence in decision-making, including about strategic life choices; (3) Improvements in well-being resulting from the above. Commonly four dimensions of women's empowerment are distinguished: economic empowerment, social empowerment, political empowerment and physical empowerment.
women's physical empowerment
The right of women to safety and security, to access to proper health care and reproductive health services, and the ability to resist violence. This also includes access to adequate nutrition and WASH facilities and the absence of physical overburdening.
women's political empowerment
The capacity of women to organize one self and others, to take part in society and its democratic processes, to make one's voice heard and have the opportunity to influence decision-making. This applies to all levels, from local level (such as WMOs) to national level.
women's socio-cultural empowerment
The capacity of women to have their own independent identity, a positive self-image and social status as an individual and as a group.
Water Management Problem Score
Water Resource Management
Wageningen University and Research Centre
Executive Engineer (BWDB)
Zonal Socio-Economist - a social scientist working in the technical assistance (TA) team responsible for supervising activities in a group of polders.